Deep learning, Computer Vision and self-driving cars

I am interested in deep learning applications on autonomous vehicles. In my lab, model R/C cars have been augmented with embedded Linux computers, networking and sensors, such as LiDAR, IMU and GPS. We use TensorFlow and GPU workstations to train Deep Neuron Networks that can be deployed on our vehicle platforms. 

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LiDAR and machine learning-based object avoidance

Here, a TensorFlow model is deployed on a rover which reads a 2D LiDAR measurements and is able to avoid dynamic obstacles.

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Object avoidance using TensorFlow with MAVkit (See below)

Similar behavior can be achieved with hand-crafted algorithms, but the NeuronNets approach is characteristic; it mimics human driver behavior (Behavior Cloning.).

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End-to-End learning for self-driving car implemented with a model R/C vehicle. 

A CNN architecture similar to NVIDIA's model has been trained to drive a self-driving model vehicle running MAVkit (see below). The TensorFlow model is running on an off-board GPU and steering commands are streamed to the MAVkit vehicle over network.

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Accessible Self-driving Car Testbed

Self-driving technologies are revolutionary to human mobility. To support researchers and students who are the driving force of this revolution, low-cost testbed platforms have been developed. Thanks to the effort of open-source community and FPV hobbyists, a complete deep-learning self-driving platform can be built for under $500.

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YOLO with OTG real-time Computer Vision

Inspired by the FPV hobby community, MAVkit (see below) integrates an OTC receiver to stream low-latency video from a self-driving car camera enables real-time performance of computer vision for object detection and classification, a critical perception requirement by any autonomous system. (This example uses YOLOv2.)

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Computer Vision and Self-driving cars

Traditional geometric Computer Vision techniques are combined with modern object recognition classifiers, using HOG features, CNN (and potentially the newer Capsule Nets) to implement vision for a self-driving car ( Udacity projects).


Dependable autopilot architectures

As modern unmanned aerial systems (UAS) continue to expand the frontiers of automation, ever-increasing accessibility and capability of UAS expose new challenges to security and flight safety.

Modern intelligent UAS integrate high-performance computing platforms and sophisticated software because of the computation-intensive jobs running on-board. The high system complexity requires a dependable design of UAS system to guarantee computation correctness and flight safety.

I am interested in modern autopilot architectures that can deliver high performance, robustness and resilience to software fault and cyber attacks.

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Modern high-performance, cyber attack-resilient, fault- tolerant and safety-assured UAS autopilot.

We develop autopilot systems that utilize multi-core computing hardware for performance, data-driven adaptive control and system monitoring algorithms for fault detection, protection and recovery of mission-critical modules for system safety.

Together with my colleague Dr. Man-Ki Yoon and directed by Prof. Lui Sha who serves NASA advisory council, we published one such autopilot using virtualization technology, called VirtualDrone:

The VirtualDrone architecture: Virtualization technology is used to encapsulate a user's autopilot interface on the trustworthy system, a host OS which actually runs the physical sensors. System safety and security can be achieved by monitoring mechanisms of the host.

To learn more, read our paper.


MAVkit: an autopilot framework for mobile robotics research and education

I am interested in open-source software and hardware for makers to build their own autonomous vehicles. Here is such a platform I developed that is used in universities (with Vicon indoor positioning integration).

  One board, Many vehicles:  MAVkit is a complete networked autopilot system that allows multiple vehicle configurations on one embedded Linux computer, which provides separate file systems for vehilcles.

One board, Many vehicles: MAVkit is a complete networked autopilot system that allows multiple vehicle configurations on one embedded Linux computer, which provides separate file systems for vehilcles.

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MAVkit integrates indoor positioning using Vicon

Vicon high-fidelity positioning system provides ground-truth positional measurements for robots. ViconMAVLink is the software that simulates GPS and sends packets to Linux robots.

One of the biggest challenges in mobile robotics research is to build a versatile and reliable testbed that can be used as a platform to explore new intelligent robotics methodologies. MAVkit is an integrated framework of software tools and designs that can be installed on inexpensive embedded Linux computers. Combined with any off-the-shelf R/C models, the system performs as a capable physical platforms for mobile robotics research. Due to the low-cost feature of the system, MAVkit is also suited for classroom settings where multiple platforms need to be distributed to students for course projects.

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Sensing and autonomy

MAVkit integrates IMU, LiDAR, GPS, Vicon and Cameras, uses PX4 and Ardupilot as the backend, supports a unified user interface (command line and API) for multi-copters, fixed-wings, rovers and boats. The resulting system is a capable tool for mobile robotics research and education.


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A $40 raspberry pi computer and modern computer vision

MAVkit aims for inexpensive real-time embedded Linux computers, such as the raspberry pi. Those platforms do not come with fancy CUDA computing hardware. But no worries, a $15 OTG kit and a laptop will allow SOTA computer vision techniques to drive MAVkit vehicles.

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MAVkit communicating using radio

MAVLink packets can be sent via telemetry radio. With a 915MHz transceiver, MAVkit running on a groundcontrol Linux computer can command a UAV beyond visual line of sight.